jeudi 19 mars 2015

ELO#193 - Jazz arabe

Jeudi 19 mars 2015

Si le monde arabe a influencé très tôt les compositeurs de jazz (Caravan en 1937; A night in Tunisia en 1942), la réciproque ne commence à être vraie que dans les années 1950, avec des visites de pays arabes par des musiciens américains, des conversions à l'islam pour certains d'entre eux, et des sons jazz qu'on commence à trouver chez l'Egyptien Abdel Halim Hafez ou chez la Libanaise Fairuz. Ce n'est que plus tard, dans les années 1960 avec l'Egyptien Salah Ragab, ou même dans les années 1990, qu'on trouvera des musiciens se revendiquant clairement d'un jazz arabe, le Tunisien Anouar Brahem, le Libanais Rabih Abou Khalil ou la Palestinienne Reem Kelani.

C'est donc très en avance sur leur temps que Slim and Slam composent les premiers jazz "en arabes", dans les années 1940. Slim and Slam est un duo de jazz des années 1930 et 1940 que Siné adore, composé de Slim Gaillard, pianiste et guitariste, et de Slam Stewart, contrebassiste. Tous les deux chantent, et sont adeptes d'un jazz humoristique, chanté parfois dans différentes langues, y compris des langues inventées comme le "Vout", et qui apparaissent dans le film délirant Helzapoppin' en 1941...

Dans leur répertoire, il existe donc deux chansons en arabe, qui sont des blagues, apprises phonétiquement par une amie arménienne libanaise. La première, intitulée Yep-Roc Heresay n'est en fait qu'une liste de plats libanais: Yebra (feuilles de vigne), Harrissah (un dessert), Kibbeh be-senniyyeh (boulettes de viande), Lahme michweh (viande grillée), Bourghoul (boulgour), Mahchi (légume farci), Banadurra (tomate)... et il termine par "Masari? Bah!" (de l'argent? j'en ai pas!). La deuxième, Arabian Boogie, est un dialogue d'autant plus absurde vu le contexte dans lequel il se déroule: "Saideh! Kifik? Kif i'ssaha?" (Bonjour monsieur! Comment ça va? Comment va la santé?) "Chou benna? Inta majnoun! Lazim!" (Qu'est-ce que tu racontes? Tu es fou! C'est sûr!)...

Et un détail biographique, la fille de Slim Gaillard, Janis, est la fameuse jeune fille dont Marvin Gaye est tombé éperdument amoureux à la fin de sa vie, quittant sa femme pour elle...
After Charlie

Un article que j'ai écrit en anglais pour mes amis étrangers...

Charlie Hebdo, before, during and after the shooting
Dror, March 2015

The emotion provoked by the shooting of Charlie Hebdo's journalists triggered a wave of reactions and analyses that were fascinating, but sometimes lacked the necessary background which would have strengthened the arguments put forward. Besides giving my own analysis, I would like to provide this background, especially for my foreign friends. This contribution comes from a reader of Charlie Hebdo, a former fan, a former friend of several of the victims, and a journalist working at a competing journal (Siné Hebdo)...

The first incarnation of Charlie Hebdo was published between 1969 and 1981, and already included well known cartoonists such as Wolinski, Cabu and Siné. Using satire and provocation, it was useful in a very conservative France for breaking up sexual taboos, but also more political targets such as authority, religion, nationalism, racism, capitalism, pollution, narrow mindedness, priests, cops, the army, the far right etc. Because it was fighting against conservatism, it was seen as a leftist journal and was mostly popular in young leftist student circles. Because it was suspicious of every politician, it was seen as an anarchist journal, but it really had no political line at all. The first incarnation of Charlie Hebdo did not fight for an alternative model of society, leftist or else, and did not have an “opinion” on every political subject. Eventually, because it was fighting to destroy and not to build, it lost its audience and stopped publishing when François Mitterrand, of the French Socialist Party, became president: the “young leftist students” were suddenly hoping for a different kind of change...

After a ten years hiatus, right wing parties came back to power and the first Gulf war triggered a renewed rebel youth looking for a journal to express its anger. A new incarnation of Charlie Hebdo came out in 1992, capitalizing on the reputation of the first one, but different on some accounts. First, because time had changed, but also because its new director, Philippe Val, wanted the journal to be more explicitly political. While generally on the left, along the years, some controversies rose inside Charlie Hebdo. As I said, time had changed: sex was less of a taboo in France, and what was considered courageous in the 1960s could be considered sexist in the 1990s. Religion had lost most of its power in the 1990s, with the abortion pill and gay unions legalized, and the Catholic church was less of an interesting target. Young cartoonists had grown older, richer, sometimes closer to the power, and their political ideas had shifted towards the mainstream. Among others, Philippe Val took stances supporting the war on Serbia, Israel against the Palestinians, or the neo-liberal European treaty. Nevertheless, freedom of speech was strong within Charlie Hebdo, and cartoonists such as Siné, or the young Charb, could publish opposing positions in the same journal. Others, such as young cartoonist Luz, would stay out of these fights and keep the “anti-political” spirit alive. This diverse range of expressed opinions was a tradition, but Val was maneuvering so that more of the “leftists”, such as Mona Chollet, Olivier Cyran, Frédéric Fajardie, Michel Boujut or Philippe Corcuff, would slowly leave the journal.

As everywhere else, tensions within Charlie Hebdo culminated after 911. While a minority of cartoonists was still resisting, Philippe Val took the journal with him on a crusade against fundamentalist Muslims, that quickly extended to Muslims and Arabs, from France to Palestine. Resonating with the traditional anti-Catholic tradition of the newspaper, most cartoonists failed to grasp that Islam differs in that it does not rule in France and that, actually, Muslims are the most discriminated against in France today. They failed to realize that this new crusade was not against the power but that it was actually siding with it: in the following years, Charlie Hebdo has received the support of conformist figures such as Oriana Fallaci, Bernard Henri-Levy, Elisabeth Badinter, Pierre Lescure and Nicolas Sarkozy, which should have been enough of a warning. They also failed to realize that, while going mainstream was providing a much wider audience (and more money), it also took them away from their regular following, and gave much more importance to what used to be considered “just little funny cartoons”. Suddenly, their cartoons were discussed, not only by fans but in mainstream media, at the French president's house, and also all around the world.

In 2006 they published the famous Danish cartoons making fun of “the Prophet”. While for some it was just a gag, for others, such as writers Philippe Val or Caroline Fourest, it was clearly a political statement. It also became a financial strategy because Islamophobic front pages usually triggered higher sales. I nevertheless want to correct some inaccuracies found in otherwise good articles: First, the issue is not so much about the few “caricatures of the Prophet” that Charlie Hebdo published, but about the many cartoons and articles that perpetuates plain racism against Muslims, with typical prejudice about them being violent, dirty, sexist, stupid, uneducated, backwards etc. In a context of growing Islamophobia in France, Charlie Hebdo sides with the powerful to trash the weak, which is very different from what they used to do. Second inaccuracy: it is not true that Charlie Hebdo does not target other religions. They mock Christians and Jews as well, but the context is different, as these populations are otherwise doing OK in France. Racism against Muslims today in France is humiliation added to the daily discriminations they suffer from unemployment or shitty jobs, shitty housing, cop targeting and other prejudice... Third, to be fair in this subtle context, Islamophobic articles and cartoons in the journal can be found along leftist stances supporting Palestine, against capitalism, or even against the targeting of immigrants, in a perfect contradiction. In a way, Charlie Hebdo's diversity of opinions also reflects the French left, which is also full of contradictions and can be anti-racist and neo-colonialist at the same time, for example.

Even though Philippe Val had ended up getting everybody's support, even that of Charb and Siné, for his fight against Islam, in 2008 he succeeded in kicking out Siné, his strongest opponent in Charlie Hebdo. Only Cavanna, Willem and Tignous supported Siné, but not Charb who soon became the new director when Val and Fourest left. Siné founded Siné Hebdo, the competing weekly journal that lasted for a couple of years. For reasons different from those of 1981, French people in 2010 are less interested in satirical newspapers, and both Charlie Hebdo and Siné Hebdo (which became Siné Mensuel) are struggling to keep a sustained following. Both were on the verge of bankruptcy when the shooting happened, and several of the victims had met with François Hollande in September 2014, to beg for financial support from the French presidency, a disgrace for the Charlie Hebdo spirit of the 1970s.

While the financial crisis was about to kill Charlie Hebdo, the shooting actually resuscitated it. While hardly anybody in France was reading Charlie Hebdo anymore, today everybody “is Charlie”. While Charlie Hebdo epitomized the criticism of power, François Hollande, Nicolas Sarkozy, Benjamin Netanyahu, Angela Merkel and David Cameron, to name but a few, attended their Soviet-looking funeral. Even Luz and Willem, cartoonists from Charlie Hebdo who survived the shooting, were appalled. Three weeks after the shootings, a couple of hundred cases of Islamophobia in France were reported, including the stabbing to death of a Muslim at his home. In addition, a couple of hundred judicial cases were opened for “advocating terrorism”, mostly against Muslim individuals, including drunkards, jokers, teenagers and even a couple of kids under 10 years old. Islamophobia was and still is widespread in the mainstream media, and “Freedom of this speech” is definitely not at stake in France today. The defense of “Freedom of speech” is an Orwellian motto that is actually used to silence undesired speech, as shown by some recent examples of people brought to court on these grounds, including a leftist professor who questioned the official storyline, a trade-unionist who contested the neo-liberal shift of the French “Socialist” government, and a pro-Palestinian activist who regretted the confusion made between Antisemitism and Antizionism...

Emotion is a bad counselor and commentators were quick to mourn the “most tragic attack since the 1970s”. Let us not forget the 17 journalists shot in Gaza by Israel last summer, the 77 young people assassinated in Norway in 2011 by Anders Breivik, the 200 Algerians killed in Paris in 1961 by the French police, or the 2000 massacred in Nigeria by Boko Haram the very same day of the Charlie Hebdo shooting. The attack against Charlie Hebdo was not a terrorist “blind attack”, and although the killers were of poor social background, they were definitely not crazy. In my opinion, it was rather a retaliation, or a a civilian collateral damage, of the global war that France, with other countries, is having against several Muslim countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Mali...

Searching for a rational explanation of what lead to the tragic shootings of January 2015 in Paris is by no means a way to excuse them, but rather a way to try to prevent them from being repeated. Charlie Hebdo was called leftist by some and fascist by others, and I tried to show here that both assertions were untrue, as the journal could include both racist and anti-racist articles and cartoons. Even though he is no longer part of it, it was important to highlight the role played by Philippe Val after 2001 in shaping the journal, its political line, its team and its support, in order to understand what happened in the following years. Obviously though, the ins and outs of the shooting go well beyond a French satirical newspaper, which is why so many world government leaders try to use it to their advantage, by increasing surveillance, profiling, repression and targeting opponents of all sorts. Our grief should not prevent us from being on guard and defend our rights, and mostly the rights of the weak against violence, wherever it comes from, including state violence, in France and around the world.
Militants français

Bénédicte Bauret, élue municipale Front de Gauche de Mantes-la-Ville, a dénoncé sur sa page facebook l'existence d'une association dont j'ignorais l'existence: Pharmadom. C'est une association de pharmaciens qui veulent aider israel. Pour ce faire, ils s'engagent à prescrire des médicaments TEVA (marque générique israélienne) et TEVA, en échange, reverse de l'argent à Pharmadom, qui l'utilisera pour aider des malades israéliens! Ca justifie d'autant plus de boycotter TEVA, et ils font donc ça assez discrètement pour que vous ne sachiez pas, quand vous achetez vos médicaments, que vous filez du fric à israel. C'est ce qu'explique le président de Pharmadom, Didier Maarek, dans un article où il précise également : "Aujourd’hui Pharm’Adom regroupe 280 pharmaciens dans toute la France. « La grande majorité est juive »"...

Ayant repris cette phrase, on accuse Bénédicte Bauret d'avoir stigmatisé les pharmaciens juifs en raison de leur religion. C'est délirant! Elle a ensuite été victime d'une attaque appelées "swatting": l'agresseur appelle la police et le SAMU, parfois en pleine nuit, pour faire croire que la personne agressée a commis un meurtre. Quelques minutes plus tard, le quartier de l'agressé est bouclé et son domicile assailli par des policiers armés (c'est un miracle qu'il n'y ait pas eu de dérapage). Après plusieurs heures, il faut aller déposer au commissariat. Bien que ces agressions ne visent pas que des pro-palestiniens, c'est une drôle de coïncidence que ça lui arrive juste après l'épisode Pharmadom (dont ne parle pas cet article de Libé), d'autant que c'est la troisième attaque en une semaine contre des militants solidaires avec la Palestine, les deux autres étant... des retraités! Avec la lacheté de telles attaques, on peut se demander qui sera le prochain ou la prochaine? Méfiez-vous...

De Syrie on entend surtout des chiffres, le nombre de morts, le nombre de jihadistes français, le nombre de sorties du Rafale, et l'on finit par oublier les humains. Les rares humains auxquels on donne la parole sont des militaires, des bourreaux, des dictateurs, des extrémistes sanguinaires de tous bords, et plus du tout de simples citoyens syriens aspirant non seulement à la paix, mais à une justice sociale et à une révolution qui placerait l'humain au coeur du système. Ces humains, on les entendait au début de la révolution, ils nous avaient donné espoir face à la dictature d'El Assad, mais 4 ans ont passé, certains sont encore les armes à la main dans un camp ou dans l'autre, beaucoup sont morts, se cachent, ou cherchent à fuir leur pays, au péril de leur vie, pour rejoindre des contrées plus clémentes... Parmi ces derniers, Ahmed a réussi à rejoindre la France et son témoignage, très simple, est bouleversant, et la photo qui l'illustre est saisissante (des carcasses de bus verticales dans une rue d'Alep pour protéger les passants des tirs de snipers...):

Retour de Syrie
Lundi Matin, le 16 mars 2015

Leila Shahid: «Je pars avec tristesse et colère»
Le Soir (Bruxelles), le 7 mars 2015

Angela Davis: « Si Israël se retrouve isolé, il ne pourra pas continuer son apartheid »
Ballast, le 18 mars 2015

Des femmes palestiniennes prennent la parole
BDS Québec, mars 2015

Comme une tasse de thé: le consentement c’est pas compliqué
Rockstar dinosaur pirate princess, le 2 mars 2015

Le Salon de la Femme
Rinny Gremaud, Le Temps (Genève), le 8 mars 2012

Océane Rose Marie:

Nicole Ferroni:


En général en France, on est beaucoup plus contrôlés par la police si on possède un faciès qu'elle estime refléter un danger imminent, c'est à dire en gros si on est noir ou arabe. Parfois, c'est juste pour les faire chier, leur signifier qu'ils sont des sous-citoyens, des sortes de "cérémonies de dégradation" comme expliqué par le Gisti.

Contre le contrôle au faciès, on peut manifester (voir agenda), mais une plainte a aussi été déposée par 13 français non blancs, pour discrimination. La plainte a été rejetée, et elle passe maintenant en appel. Elle n'a peut-être pas beaucoup de chance d'aboutir, mais espérons qu'elle permettra au moins de faire avancer les choses, jusqu'à la cour européenne des droits de l'homme s'ils ont le courage (et l'argent) d'aller jusque là...:
Musique - vidéo

Kalmunity Vibe, le mois dernier à Montréal, encore une fois, "ça l'a fait", la chair de poule:

Nouveau morceau pour Jill Scott, You Don't Know, une reprise du morceau de Lorraine Ellison:

Nouveau morceau pour Melody Gardot, Same To You:

Nouveau morceau pour Sly Johnson, Everybody Dancin':

Un morceau de 2012 du groupe The Reverend Peyton's Big Damn Band, Devils Look Like Angels:

Hyleen Gil en concert Can You Love Me:

Une heure et demi d'excellent blues, même s'il est très sexiste, avec Bobby Rush:

Stevie Wonder, rejoint par Herbie Hancock et Chick Corea, As et Watermelon Man:

Ariana Grande et Babyface interprètent Signed, Sealed, Delivered lors d'un concert donné en hommage à Stevie Wonder...

1h de gospel avec les Campbell Brothers
Musique - audio

Hommage à Tammi Terrell, décédée il y a 45 ans, le 16 mars 1970, avec All I Do (1966) morceau écrit par Stevie Wonder et repris par lui en 1980. Un peu de soul avec That's What I Get, de Ike Noble (1971), de funk avec Won't Nobody Listen, du groupe Black Haze Express (1971) et de gospel avec Nobody Knows, du pasteur T. L. Barrett (1971). Enfin, deux duos rares en concert, de Prince avec Mavis Staples sur I'll Take You There (Londres 1993) et avec Chaka Khan sur le morceau d'Aretha Franklin, Baby I Love You (Londres 1998).

Le nouveau morceau de Saun and Starr, Look Closer.

Du Sahara occidental, dont on reçoit souvent de mauvaises nouvelles, le disque d'Aziza Brahim, Mabruk (2012)...

2h de gospel avec un mix choisi par Greg Belson et Eli 'Paperboy' Reed
Et, sans aucun rapport, Siné sur Europe 1, une interview de 2010...

Vendredi 20 mars entre 9h30 et 11h30: éclipse partielle de soleil, avec un maximum à Paris à 10h29!

Samedi 21 mars à 15h, devant le métro Barbès-Rochechouart: journée mondiale contre tous les racismes et le fascisme: l'égalité ou rien!

22 mars Sunside: Yana Bibb

Lundi 30 mars à 18h30 à l'Université Paris 1, Centre PMF, amphi N, 90 rue de Tolbiac, P13: conférence de Naomi Klein à Paris autour de son dernier livre "Tout peut changer. Capitalisme et changement climatique"

8 avril le Badaboum: Ben Khan

16 avril Cigale: Guts

28 avril New Morning: Terakaft

20 mai Alhambra: Titi Robin et Mehdi Nassouli

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